Thursday, August 27, 2020

Defence policy of india free essay sample

India seeks after a street of tranquil turn of events, and solidly seeks after a national safeguard strategy which is protective in nature. India is a creating nation with immense domain and enormous populace. Indias harmony, security and advancement needs powerful national safeguard. Indias national barrier is dependent upon and serves its turn of events and security technique. It isn't coordinated against nor does it undermine any nation, and its central reason for existing is to shield national security and solidarity, and guarantee smooth advancement of the reason for building a tolerably prosperous society in an inside and out manner. Indias national resistance never goes past the need of defending its national security. India has been and will stay firm in defending global and local harmony, security and strength. India trusts the worldwide network will see Indias national protection development in a goal and reasonable way. India is prepared to work with all gatherings to fortify common trust and participation with the end goal of advancing universal harmony, dependability and advancement. India unswervingly seeks after a free international strategy of harmony. The central objectives of this approach are to save Indias autonomy, power and regional trustworthiness, make a positive worldwide condition for Indias change and opening up and modernization development, keep up world harmony and push basic turn of events. Foundation Following India’s freedom in 1947, at that point Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru set out on an international strategy that depended on standards of communism and staying reserved to the developing battle between the Soviet Union and the nations framing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in the post-World War II period. In the end, this arrangement prompted India getting one of the establishing individuals from the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 1955. In down to earth terms, it set India in a place of making sure about reciprocal universal responsibilities just in circumstances that were plainly impartial in nature or in instances of lastresort. The essential standards of nonalignment additionally represented the military connections of the Indian guard foundation, bringing about constrained military-tomilitary contacts, for the most part through United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions or preparing at outside military schools. These practices were for the most part followed by his replacements until the mid 1990s when a changing geopolitical structure and an inner monetary emergency started to challenge these standards. India’s answer to this test is to connect with whatever number â€Å"friendly remote countries† as could be allowed to build up an offset of nonalignment with worldwide multilateralism. The enhancement of its guard flexibly base from the Soviet Union and later Russia to western providers brought about a progression of new understandings supporting its broadening, while likewise protecting concurrences with a considerable lot of its littler companions. Since 2000, India has expanded the quantity of nations with which it has guard explicit understandings from seven to 26 before the finish of 2008. Respective and multilateral activities are likewise an expanding highlight of India’s viexpanding resistance relations as it tries to discover new innovations to change its military from Cold War time weapons to 21st century capacities through such chances. India’s interests have changed over the previous decade or increasingly, taking it from a place of nonalignment and noncommitment to having explicit vital interests taking it on a way of â€Å"poly-arrangement. This way has all the earmarks of being following four explicit, yet intermixed courses: †¢ Becoming a local force over the Indian Ocean bowl and making sure about understandings from accomplices in this area that help this objective, while developing expeditionary abilities in its naval force and flying corps. Simultaneously, it keeps on modernizing its military to manage possible dangers from its prompt neighbors and inward insurrection gatherings, and to satisfy its objective of being a worldwide pioneer in UN peacekeeping. Creating â€Å"strategic partnerships† with nations saw as pioneers of a worldwide, multipolar request and looking for present day military capacities from a large number of those nations. This incorporates present day weapon frameworks just as the and innovation authorized creation related with those weapon frameworks. †¢ Securing or keeping up attaches with littler nations all around, a significant number of which are individuals from the NAM, that can offer help in universal fora just as give expected markets to its own developing barrier industry. Keeping up its situation of authority in the NAM and publically introducing itself as â€Å"nonaligned† regardless of its genuine arrangements in the three above push regions. A large number of the ongoing changes in India’s worldwide safeguard connections speak to a tremendous takeoff from past strategy and practices. Given that the Congress Party and its United Progressive alliance got a solid discretionary command on its re-appointment in May 2009, these progressions are probably going to proceed and maybe will see strong moves to additionally create and extend key connections around the globe. As India concretes its extending barrier connections through acquisition of significant resistance stages and the related innovation moves and co-creation understandings, it will characterize the course of its drawn out connections for the coming decades. National Security, Defense Policy and Planning It is commonly recognized that the way to deal with national security requires an extensive perspective on different political, social, financial, innovative and vital angles. National security infers shielding regional limits as well as that the country can manufacture a firm, populist, innovatively proficient and dynamic culture with a decent personal satisfaction. Contrasted and national security, safeguard strategy is increasingly focussed, worried about the assurance of the state and its residents from immediate and roundabout (intermediary) military dangers and activities of different states. In guard arranging, the accentuation movements to national security worries that are for the most part military in nature. There are two ideas at this level: discouragement (counting coercive discretion) and resistance (prevention). Prevention alludes to strategies intended to demoralize the foe from making direct or intermediary military move, by raising the expense with the goal that it exceeds the increases that he may wish to accomplish. Protection (discouragement) arrangements are intended to decrease the capacity of the enemy to cause damageâ€and own expenses and risksâ€in the occasion prevention comes up short. Prevention and protection are two intertwined strands of safeguard strategy. Safeguard arranging includes the conceptualisation of plans and choices for the execution of resistance strategy. Long haul making arrangements for protection is basic for the accompanying reasons: (a) The presence of a profoundly liquid vital condition, which brings about persistent moves and changing profiles of danger and force conditions. (b) To guarantee reasonable designation of assets and savvy use. (c) Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), I. e. propels in innovation, which bring about weapons and gear frameworks getting out of date at a quick rate. Lead time required to raise and plan protection units; to deliver or procure and present new weapons and hardware frameworks. (e) The changing idea of contention and diminished response time. (f) Coordination issues between resistance, monetary, science and innovation, foundation and mechanical exercises, just as among the Defense Forces. The barrier arranging process endeavors to coordinate the budgetary assets liable to be made accessible for the prerequisite to build up the guard ability important to confront the dangers and difficulties. This activity is attempted in two stages: (a) What ought to be the extent dispensed to the resistance exertion as against different zones of national security concerns and monetary development? This activity includes a ‘visionary’ investigation of outer and interior security dangers (frequently connected) and challenges. So as to limit unfavorable effects of high military consumption on financial turn of events, it is important to fit national advancement arranging with resistance arranging. (b) Optimization of allotted assets, for example dissemination of assets inside the Ministry of Defense (MoD) in light of Force arranging (Force and weapons blend, order and control, coordinations and HR the executives) by the Defense Services to battle ebb and flow and future dangers, and improvement of required abilities by the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), resistance creation and different offices concerned. The quantum of indigenous creation and the necess ities to be acquired from outside are chosen in this stage. The goal is to accomplish maximumdefence ability from the given assets. Both portion and dispersion are firmly connected. They should be explored occasionally however not all that as often as possible that the arranging procedure turns out to be specially appointed. In India’s case, this is done at five-year spans. Foundation of Defense Planning in India Before freedom, the guard administrations dealt with an arrangement of agreement financial plan. Resistance consumption was pegged at Rs 55 crore for every year, which was the greater part of the Central Government’s income. There was no genuine danger from outside (aside from during World War II, when a new understanding was marked) and this sum was more than sufficient to keep up the foundation. The investment funds were not permitted to slip by yet taken care of in the Defense Reserve Fund that was used to back measures for reequipment of the Defense Services, in this manner liberating the Government from giving asset cash more prominent than the agreement sum. Use on barrier rose steeply not long after freedom. However,â there was no arranged exertion and barrier programs consiste

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Bullying in the united states of america Research Paper

Tormenting in the US of america - Research Paper Example (Salamone and Pesce 2010). The rundown really contained a developing number of casualties and these names referenced here were simply part of numerous instances of tormenting that happen in American schools today. These occurrences should fill in as a reminder to policymakers, school executives and the general public itself with the end goal for them to focus, find a way to address the issue. The quantity of honest lives that are being guaranteed by this national pestilence ought not be allowed to become significantly further, particularly given the way that we can take care of business. Why is Bullying Dangerous? So as to comprehend why tormenting must be halted for the last time, everybody ought to know about what it is. This is vital in light of the fact that there may in any case be individuals out there who laugh at these episodes and see them as some minor prodding or school fights that are normally part of growing up. The quantity of intrigue gatherings and insightful work on harassing has come about to a few delineations of tormenting. For instance, Robert Thomas (2006) clarified that it is the demonstration of tormenting an individual in a manner he loathes. (p. 135) a reason arranged site established by the mother of a domineering jerk's casualty went similarly as considering it a littler scope psychological oppression on the grounds that the harasser utilizes terrorizing and fear to compromise, bother and attack a more fragile person. (2011) Then, Fried and Sosland (2009) refered to provoking, shunning and scorning past continuance as tormenting and highlighted the rise of the word/idea called bullycide that came to allude to youngsters who end it all in view of harassing. (p. 14) The sheer number of clarifications doesn't speak to contrasts or some similarity to banter concerning tormenting. The case is that every ha their own form to this marvel, which is in a general sense about a reliable attack - physical, mental, oral - on a more vulnerable individual by a more grounded menace. In an examination embraced by Bradley (2007), it was discovered that: 1) 33% of center school understudies have felt risky at school because of tormenting; and, 2) in any event 10% of secondary school understudies who dropped out of school refered to dread of harassing as the reason. (p. 1) Hernandez (2006) additionally shared horrid insights in his own exploration, expressing, â€Å"nearly 30% of American younger students have been engaged with some part of bullying,† with 13% self-revealed of being menaces, 10.6% announced being tormented, and 6.3% detailed being both a casualty and a harasser. (p. 61) The measurements as spoke to by crafted by Bradley and Hernandez is dreaded to be a long way from exact in light of the fact that it is accepted that numerous occurrence of harassing go unreported. An upsetting advancement today is the rise of the alleged cyberbullying, â€Å"the utilization of data and correspondence innovat ions to help purposeful, rehashed, and antagonistic conduct by an individual or gathering that is planned to hurt others.† (Evans 2007, p. 14) This sort of harassing is progressively turning out to be noteworthy on the grounds that it will in general amplify the impacts of hostility ten times. Due to the mechanical and correspondence progressions today, numerous apparatuses are presently accessible to understudies that empower them to menace people at a rate, degree and recurrence that has never observed. Access to cell phones, the Internet, including its numerous person to person communication sites are advantageously offering extremely powerful intends to hurt, pester and mortify an

Friday, August 21, 2020

6 Google Search Tricks To Find What You Are Looking For

6 Google Search Tricks To Find What You Are Looking For Make Money Online Queries? Struggling To Get Traffic To Your Blog? Sign Up On (HBB) Forum Now!6 Google Search Tricks To Find What You Are Looking ForUpdated On 23/04/2017Author : svizionTopic : GoogleShort URL : CONNECT WITH HBB ON SOCIAL MEDIA Follow @HellBoundBlogYou can make the most out of search engines if you can try some different search queries, especially for a giant like Google. Below I mentioned some of the useful search queries to find what you will be looking for these days.Put one of these string in google search box: 1. Applicationsparent directory /appz/ -xxx -html -htm -php -shtml -opendivx -md5 -md5sums2. DVD Ripped Moviesparent directory DVDRip -xxx -html -htm -php -shtml -opendivx -md5 -md5sums3. xVid Moviesparent directory Xvid -xxx -html -htm -php -shtml -opendivx -md5 -md5sums4. Gamesparent directory Gamez -xxx -html -htm -php -shtml -opendivx -md5 -md5sums5. Music in MP3 Formatparent directory MP3 -xxx -html -htm -php -shtml -opendi vx -md5 -md5sums6. Specific Song, Album, etcparent directory Name of Singer or album -xxx -html -htm -php -shtml -opendivx -md5 -md5sumsNote : I am only changing the word after the parent directory, change it to what you want and you will get a lot of stuff.Tip For Searching Smartly Put this string in google search:?intitle:index.of? mp3You only need add the name of the song/artist/singer.Example: ?intitle:index.of? mp3 dropkickmurphyThese are a few uses the Googles Operators, you can search for that phrase on google and get and find a page with all the them.READ3 Essential WordPress Plugins To Enhance SEOMOST RELATED ONES : 4 Simple Search Engine Tips TricksUse Google Smartly For Better Search ResultsThis article is written by Shawn Crigger. You can out his blog for more information on Google Tricks and Web Design. If you wish to write for us, kindly check this.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Midterm Review Essay - 9272 Words

Chapter 16 1.) All of the following factors contributed to explosive economic growth during the Gilded Age EXCEPT: Question options: | a) | availability of capital for investment. | | b) | a growing supply of labor. | | c) | abundant natural resources. | | d) | low tariffs. | | e) | federal land grants to railroads. | | | 1 / 1 point | 2.) By 1890, the majority of Americans: Question options: | a) | worked as farmers. | | b) | worked as independent craftsmen. | | c) | worked in the mining industry. | | d) | were moving into the middle class. | | e) | worked for wages. | | | 1 / 1 point | 3.) The second industrial revolution was marked by: Question options: | a) | a return to†¦show more content†¦| | b) | lumber, mining industries, tourism, and farming. | | c) | the continued reliance on self-sufficient farming. | | d) | transportation modes other than the railroad. | | e) | the cooperation of the Plains Indians. | | | 1 / 1 point | 13.) What did hunters shoot while riding the railroads across the West? Question options: | a) | horses | | b) | deer | | c) | antelope | | d) | Indians | | e) | buffalo | | | 1 / 1 point | 14.) Which statement about Chief Joseph’s appeal to an audience in Washington, D.C., in 1879 is FALSE? Question options: | a) | He did not wish to speak to the audience, but had been coerced to do so by President Hayes. | | b) | He asked the white man for more than just talk, as he saw talk as broken promises. | | c) | He believed that the Indians and the white man could live in peace, without trouble between them. | | d) | He asked the policymakers of Washington to extend the same laws to the Indians as to the white man. | | e) | He attempted to convince his audience that its belief that Indians were like wild animals was false. | | | | 15.) What was the aim of Carlisle, a boarding school for Indians? | a) | to prepare them for reservation life | | b) | to train them in the professional skills necessary to return to the reservations as doctors and teachers | | c) | to convert them to Christianity so that they wouldShow MoreRelatedMidterm Review1485 Words   |  6 PagesInteractive Management Science MSamp;E 107/207, Midterm Review The Flaw of the Averages Mindle 1 / Uncertainty vs. Risk * Risk is in the eye of the beholder * Risk reflects how uncertain outcomes cause loss or injury to a particular individual or group * Risk attitude measures the willigness to incur risk in the quest of reward * Different risks to the same uncertainty Mindle 2 / An uncertain number is a shape * A distribution * â€Å"Uncertain numbers† * Risk is subjective Read MoreMidterm Review Essay963 Words   |  4 Pages†¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ MComm100†©Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ¢â‚¬ ©Mass†©Communication†©in†©Society†© Midterm†©Review†©Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ¢â‚¬ ©12th†©Ed†© (Chapters†©1†©Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ¢â‚¬ ©9)†© †© Understand†©the†©definition†©of†©Ã¢â‚¬Ëœencoding’†© What†©is†©Ã¢â‚¬Ëœnegative†©feedback’?†© Characteristics†©of†©a†©mass†©communication†©audience†© What†©is†©a†©Ã¢â‚¬Ëœmedia†©vehicle’?†© Characteristics†©of†©mass†©communication†©organizations†© What†©vehicles†©have†©increased†©the†©mobility†©of†©the†©mass†©mediaRead MoreMidterm Review2002 Words   |  9 Pagesï » ¿The Federal Circuit Court of Appeal has appellate jurisdiction over the U.S. Claims Court. 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It reflects the action that produces the most happiness for people; meaning that an action is good if it produces a higher ultility of happiness. The thoery treats all members of a society equally, balances the inequalities in wealth between rich and poor people and justifies human acts. For example

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Themes And Trends That Happened During The Modern Era

1. The themes and trends that happened during the â€Å"modern† era include punishment, humans with their development and religion. The first one is from Nietzsche. He wrote about German punishment. It includes: stoning, breaking on the wheel, casting stakes, having torn or trampled by horses, boiling the criminal in oil or wine, popular fraying and cutting flesh from the breast. He labels the victim and criminal as the creditor and debtor. When humanity was not yet ashamed of cruelty, life on earth was more lighthearted. Perhaps, pain back then didn’t hurt as much as today (Nietzsche’s time). Therefore, cruelty wasn’t a big deal for the spectator during Nietzsche’s time. He lists several definitions of punishment. Punishment defined, as†¦show more content†¦This means that humans grew agriculturally, adapted in different environments and developed jobs for their needs. Unlike an animal, humans actually have something to do in the world rat her than worrying about defending themselves or providing itself strength. Finally, humans developed governments. There are three steps that Rousseau believed in how government was started. The first step is the right of conquest for conquering other people. The second step is that the strong and weak people needed to be replaced into the poor and rich category. The final step is for the poor to surrender since they have nothing to lose. When it comes to the government that people fitted in, they either fitted in: Monarchy, Democracy, or Aristocracy. The final one is from Hobbes. Hobbes explained a lot about religion. He wrote about the Principles of Christian Politics and nature or rights of the Christian Commonwealth. When Hobbes writes about a man pretending of God speaking to him supernaturally, Hobbes doubts this thought. Hobbes doubts it, because he cannot believe of the argument that the man is trying to make him believe. Hobbes wrote about spirits and angels. Hobbes wrote th at he believed that angels were nothing, but supernatural apparitions made by God. For miracles and their uses, Hobbes explains miracles as, â€Å"a work of God done for the making manifest to his elect

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Domestic Violence Against Women Is Not Only Physical And...

Domestic Violence against women is not only physical and sexual but leads to a path of psychological abuse. Women of all backgrounds including; race, age, religion, ethnicity, and class can be victims of domestic violence. Even though domestic violence is looked down upon in societies, it can be a difficult crime to punish. Men typically have the upper hand in a society; although, women have started to make their voices heard by standing up to their abusers and becoming more of a force in government policy making. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says, â€Å"On average, 20 people per minute are victims of physical violence by an intimate partner in the United States.† As one can see all types of abuse occurs among each group of a society. Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse range over different levels of severity all being serious matters. Women can have a difficult time overcoming their abusive partners because of the severity the abuser can have on women’s emotional state. Although women can be batterers too, most of the time in a relationship the male is the predominate force of battering. There have been signs shown that males that batter have grown up in families that battering was accepted; therefore, they do not know how to treat their wives any differently (Wilson 18). This issue needs to be addressed through political change. Since the 1970s progress has been seen, but there is still much more to be accomplished in making women feel safe in their ownShow MoreRelatedViolence Against Women s Violence1553 Words   |  7 Pages Violence Against Women by Ines Alvarez Mrs. Madrell English 4, Honors, Period 6 Miami Coral Park Senior High School March 18,2016 Mrs. Madrell English 4, Honors, Period 6 Miami Coral Park Senior High School March 18,2016 Violence Against Women Women have been and continue to be victims of violence in all of its faces. The purpose of this research is to explore the many ways in which women are abused and mistreated, focusing on the effects that violence causes to the victimsRead MoreDifferent Types Of Domestic Violence1595 Words   |  7 Pagesidentify different types of domestic violence that exist within the American society as well as within other cultures. Domestic violence is defined as abuse that is caused by aggressive behaviors, generally towards a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship. There are different forms of domestic violence that occur to people on a daily basis, and this violence exist mostly amongst women, but does not exclude the fact that there are men that fall victim to domestic violence as well. Throughout thisRead MoreDomestic Violence And Sexual Harassment1645 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Violence is an ever growing problem across the globe. In particular, violence against women is at an all time high. Although many cases of violence against women are reported, it is in statistical data that half of all cases are not reported. Some are not reported because of fears, relationship severances, and other unknown reasons. The main types of abuse on women are domestic and sexual harassment (Nosheen, 2011). Follow this paper carefully while it takes you on an expedition ofRead MoreThe Effects of Violence on Women Essay1662 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effects of Violence on Women Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in developing, as well as in developed countries. It cuts across cultural and religious barriers, restricting women from fully participating in society. Violence against women has many forms in which it comes in, from domestic abuse and rape to child marriages and female circumcision. All are violations of the most fundamentalRead MoreThe Effects Of Violence On Women s Violence1735 Words   |  7 Pages Effects of Violence against Women According to Violence Type by Ines Alvarez Mrs. Madrell English 4, Honors, Period 6 Miami Coral Park Senior High School March 18,2016 Mrs. Madrell English 4, Honors, Period 6 Miami Coral Park Senior High School March 18,2016 Violence against Women Women have been and continue to be victims of violence in all of its faces. The purpose of this research is to explore the many ways in which women are abused and mistreated, focusing on theRead MoreAn Urgent Issue in Our Society - Violence Against Women 1042 Words   |  5 PagesThe concept of violence might only represent a negative image. It refers to a set of radical human behaviors, for example, perpetrator would use physical force to hurt or kill people on purpose. Besides, the typology of violence in World Health Organization (WHO) has an explicit structure, which comprise physical, psychological, and sexual to families, partners, friends or strangers (). However, in this essay I shall focus on critically analyzing Farkhanda Younis’ story, which could reflect howRead MoreDomestic Violence Against Women966 Words   |  4 Pages Domestic Violence against Women Name Course Instructor Institution Date of submission Domestic Violence against Women Domestic violence is known in different ways, which are domestic abuse, intimate partner or battering. Domestic violence occurs in a relationship between intimate people. It can take many forms including sexual and physical abuse, threat of abuse and emotional. Domestic violence is mostly directed towards women, though men are abused but chances are minimal. Domestic violence happensRead MoreWomen And Domestic Violence : Lauren Lys Essay1699 Words   |  7 Pages Women and Domestic Violence Lauren Lys Eastern Michigan University Abstract Domestic violence, also called intimate partner violence, is a pattern of behavior used to establish power and control over another person through fear and intimidation, often including the threat or use of violence. Statically women are the victims of domestic violence; this has been happening for a long time. In 1994 Congress passed the Violence Against Women Act, for the first time providing recognitionRead MoreDomestic Violence : South Africa1709 Words   |  7 PagesDomestic Violence in South Africa Love is looked upon as a beautiful thing but within beauty lies darkness in South Africa. There is an unspoken violence against women going on within the communities of south Africa that is now coming to light; domestic violence. Husbands, not strangers or men with guns, are now the biggest threat to women in post-conflict South Africa, according to a report by the International Rescue Committee. Attacked beaten, abused, killed these are sometimes words to describeRead MoreThe International Context Of Violence Against Women Essay1089 Words   |  5 Pagesatrocities being perpetrated against women in various forms, combinations and modes. This volume highlights various aspects of domestic violence, dowry, exploitation in various ways besides teen dating, sexual slavery, rape and various other aspects besides the role of police in curbing this evil as the pillars of administration. It highlights the plight of women world over in the light of various studies on violence against women. It farther underscores the various aspects of violence with a focus on various

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

No Child Left Behind free essay sample

No Child Left Behind, also referred to as NCLB, is a funded Federal Government program that was enacted in 2001. The purpose of NCLB is to ensure that all children have equal access and opportunity at obtaining a high-quality education, while at the same time being proficient in state academic assessments. The NCLB Act contains five principles that schools must abide by in order to meet the standards for qualification. These principles include: a) strong accountability for results; b) expanded flexibility and control; c) teaching methodologies based on scientific research; d) more options for parents; and e) well-qualified teachers. These principles play an important role in ensuring that all children get the education they need. This paper will discuss the pros and cons of each one of these principles and explore how they affect diverse learners. Principles of the NCLB Act The first principle, strong accountability for results, includes standards schools must follow to make sure each pupil meets the minimum standards set forth by NCLB. We will write a custom essay sample on No Child Left Behind or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To satisfy the standards, students must meet adequate yearly progress (AYP) through testing against curricular objectives. When the test scores fall below minimum requirements, the school has two years to make changes and bring scores up. Testing begins on the third grade, and continues until the eighth grade. Many people, including myself, feel that this standard has pros and unintended cons. On the one hand, it’s a good thing to assess students’ performance against curricular objectives, and to have tests to measure that progress. We all deserve to have schools in which students are really learning. On the other hand, there is the unintended consequence of having the schools â€Å"teach to the test† (TTTT), which means that students might be in a situation where they learn what is tested, instead of having a more analytical learning. The second principle, expand flexibility and control, involves the specifics of what makes the NCLB program a success. It’s the principle that gives teeth to the testing process. If a school’s assessments are below NCLB standards for two consecutive years, the parent(s) or guardian of pupils can transfer him/her to a different school. If after three years they are below NCLB standards, they become eligible to receive tutoring. In the event the student is below NCLB standards for four years, the school steps in to take corrective action. In my opinion, a con of this principle is that the school should step in before the student is transferred to a new school; there is little good derived from simply transferring to another school if the pupil continues falling behind as a result of having poor basic skills. If the child has basic deficiencies, a tutor should be assigned as early as possible, as recovering lost time becomes more and more difficult. Waiting three or four years to assign a tutor might be futile. As indicated above, the third principle is providing parents/guardians more options and control when their child falls below minimum standards. As mentioned before, parents can transfer their child to a new school or have them tutored. I believe the pro of this principle is involving the parents in the decision-making process of their child’s education, particularly when the child is falling behind. The fourth principle corresponds to applying educational methodologies based on scientific methods. As per the NCLB, schools should fund only programs that are proven to work through the scientific method. This principle is good in that it ensures schools spend money on effective programs; instead of continue investing money in programs that have already been proven to be ineffective. Schools have an incentive to select good programs that have been proven to work. The fifth principle corresponds to having well qualified teachers, who have the necessary training. To be qualified to teach, educators must: a) have a college degree with full certification; and b) pass necessary testing. This principle has a definitive pro in that it ensures schools have personnel that are competent, qualified and have the skills needed to help students learned, including diverse learners. In summary, I feel that the NCLB act is based on some good principles that have the best of intensions: at its core, NCLB seeks to keep students in school, make schools more accountable and better, have qualified teachers, spend budgets on effective programs, and give parents options when the schools don’t perform. NCLB also has critics, like any other government initiative; a major concern is whether it will give schools an incentive to TTTT, to make sure students meet minimum testing requirements. References Rosenberg, M. S. , Westling, D. L. , amp; McLeskey, J. (2008). Special education for today’s teachers: An Introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merill/Prentice Hall. Carleton University. (n. d. ). Pros and cons of NCLB. Retrieved from http://www. carleton. edu/departments/educ/Vote/pages/Pros_and-Cons. html